American policy of Isolationism- international diplomacy
American policy of Isolationism- international diplomacy
The policy or doctrine that peace and economic advancement can best be achieved by isolating one's country from alliances and commitments with other countries.
- THE INTERNAL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1920-1940
EVIDENCE OF PROSPERITY AND OPTIMISM IN USA IN THE 1920S
USA CHANGE IN SOCIAL LIFE 1920
US ECONOMIC PROSPERITY IN 1920S
EVIDENCE OF MISERY AND DISILLUSION IN THE US 1920S
WHY DEMOCRATS LOST ELECTIONS IN 1920
REPUBLICANS ATTITUDE TO ECONOMIC AFFAIRS
FACTORES WHICH LED TO THE GREAT DEPRESSION
WHY THE REPUBLICANS WERE INCAPABLE OF SOLVING THE GREAT DEPRESSION
WHY THE REPUBLICANS LOST THE ELECTION OF 1932
USA UNDER THE DEMOCRATS, ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEAL
DEMOCRATS AND THE NEW DEAL 1933-35
THE NEW DEAL II 1935-1937
USA AND THE POLICY OF ISOLATIONISM
HOW THE USA PURSUED THE POLICY OF ISOLATIONISM 1920’S
WHY THE USA ABANDONED THE POLICY
FROM ISOLATIONISM TO ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IN WORLD AFFAIRS
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND LATIN AMERICA SINCE 1900
THE US FOREIGN POLICY FROM 1919 TO 1941/ISOLATIONISM
USA, SINCE 1945
EISENHOWER 1953-1961 (REPUBLICAN)
JOHN KENNEDY DEMOCRAT 1961-63
KRUSHCHEV OF USSR, KENNEDY OF USA
RICHARD NIXON (REPUBLICAN 1969 -1974)
JIMMY CARTER DEMOCRAT 1977-81
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
RONALD REAGAN 1981-1989
THE LIBERATION MOVEMENTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
CIRCUMSTANCES LAEDING TO THE UNILATERAL DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (UDI)
REASONS WHY IAN SMITH DECLARED UDI
REACTION TO THE UDI
CIRCUMSTANCES LEADING TO THE INDEPENDENCE OF RHODESIA
REASONS WHY IAN SMITH’S UDI SURVIVED FOR LONG
REASONS FOR BLACK MAJORITY RULE BY 1980
SOUTH WEST AFRICA
REASONS WHY THE INDEPENDENCE OF NAMIBIA WAS DELAYED
WHY THE INDEPENDENCE OF NAMIBIA WAS GRANTED IN 1990
ROLE PLAYED BY SWAPO IN THE INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE
Most Americans of the 1930s recoiled from involvement in the European conflict; they favored U.S. isolationism, and many supported pacifism. Some believed that “merchants of death” (bankers and arms dealers) had lured the United States into World War I. The Roosevelt administration, too, tried to maintain friendly foreign relations. Roosevelt recognized the USSR in 1933 and set up a Good Neighbor Policy with Latin America. No state, the United States said, had the right to intervene in the affairs of another. Roosevelt also made progress toward lower tariffs and free trade. In 1935 and 1936, Congress passed a group of neutrality acts to keep the United States out of Europe’s troubles. The first two acts banned arms sales or loans to nations at war. The third act, a response to the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), extended the ban to nations split by civil war.
But as conflict spread abroad, Americans discarded their neutral stance. Many opposed fascist forces in the civil war in Spain. There, democratic armies fell to dictator Francisco Franco, who was supported by Hitler and Mussolini. Japan launched a new attack on China in July 1937 to obtain more Chinese territory. It quickly overran northern China. Hitler marched through Europe. Germany in 1938 annexed Austria and then seized Czechoslovakia without resistance. In August 1939 Hitler and Stalin signed a nonaggression pact. On September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, which led Britain and France to declare war on Germany. Americans increasingly doubted that the United States could avoid becoming involved.
In September 1939 Roosevelt called Congress into special session to revise the neutrality acts. The president offered a plan known as cash-and-carry, which permitted Americans to sell munitions to nations able to pay for them in cash and able to carry them away in their own ships. Isolationists objected, but Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1939, which legitimized cash-and-carry and allowed Britain and France to buy American arms. The war in Europe, meanwhile, grew more dire for the Allies. In June 1940 Germany conquered France, and British troops that had been in France retreated across the English Channel. Then German bombers began to pound Britain.
In June 1940 the United States started supplying Britain with “all aid short of war” to help the British defend themselves against Germany. Roosevelt asked Congress for more funds for national defense. Congress complied and began the first American peacetime military draft, the Selective Training and Service Act, under which more than 16 million men were registered. After the 1940 election, Roosevelt urged that the United States become “the great arsenal of democracy.” In 1941 he and British prime minister Winston Churchill announced the Atlantic Charter, which set forth Allied goals for World War II and the postwar period. The two nations pledged to respect “the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live” and promised a free world without war “after the final destruction of Nazi tyranny.” Isolationists criticized each move towards war; however, the United States was still not actually at war.
In 1941 the conflict worsened. Despite the nonaggression pact, German armies invaded the USSR. Meanwhile, as Japan continued to invade areas in Asia, U.S. relations with Japan crumbled. On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked a U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The next day it attacked the main American base in the Philippines. In response, the United States declared war on Japan, although not on Germany; Hitler acted first and declared war on the United States. The United States committed itself to fighting the Axis powers as an ally of Britain and France.
Summary: The policy or doctrine directed toward the isolation of a country from the affairs of other nations by a deliberate abstention from political, military, and economic agreements.